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Reproductive Fraud

Reproductive Fraud is is when a woman fraudulently collects child support from a man who is not her children's father. From all appearances, it is widespread! Before you agree to any child support award, insist on a DNA test. DNA testing is now easily available and not very expensive. Don't let your ex-spouse fraudulently extract payments. DNA Testing Services:


The National Post - July 6, 2000, Page A1

Male suspicions fuelling paternity testing industry

By Aravind Adiga

NEW YORK After shying away from paternity tests for years, American men are now turning to DNA consultants in record numbers. Insecurity about their partners' fidelity is creating a new client base for DNA consultants, fuelling an expansion in the testing industry.

Experts estimate there are now at least 40 big DNA testing laboratories and more than 200 consultants vying to give American men respite from the suspicions.

Laurie Ruggiero get calls every day from men who want to know if their children are really their own.

"A lot of men are suspicious these days," says Ms. Ruggiero, a DNA paternity expert with Allen Gelb, a New York consultant.

"Their friends tell them: your baby doesn't look like you. Your girlfriend's been fooling around."

A.J.Mitchell, the president of Florida-based Columbia Laboratory Services, which helps more tha 150 clients every month, traced the original explosion of paternity cases to the Clinton administration's welfare reform program.

When many single mothers faced the loss of federal aid, they scrambled to use DNA evidence to force their male partners to share the financial burden of child raising.

Mr. Mitchell, who estimates his business has grown by 25% each year since 1994, says demand has also risen because federal authorities demand DNA evidence from foreigners claiming U.S. residency through kinship with American citizens.

However, experts agree male insecurity is leading the surge in DNA testing. Brian Crocker of National Paternity Services, a Florida-based firm with a monthly base of 500-600 clients, says men inundate his company with requests. Husbands bring not only their children for tests but also the intimate clothing of their wives for tests on semen stains.

Half of each individual's DNA is inherited from each parent. If DNA markers from a man are not found in his child, he can be ruled out as the natural parent. If genetic patterns of a man and a child overlap, there is an overwhelming likelihood of their being related.

Tests recently resolved one of the United States' longest-running paternity controversies. Did Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, father children by Sally Hemmings, a teenage slave? For generations, Hemmings' descendents have claimed to be Jefferson's offspring. Genetic testing has strongly supported their claim.

Whereas old methods required blood samples, the "buccal swab" procedure permits a sample to be removed from the inside of the cheek.

However, once the test is conducted, men often learn that absolute knowledge can come at a terrible price.

Craig Kelly of ReliaGene Technologies, a New Orleans firm, says a third of American men who demand tests on their children learn they are not the natural fathers. Such revelations can shatter the fathers, but the impact on the children can be worse.

States require all testing to be conducted very early in the child's life.

However, Mr. Crocker prefers to focus on the two-thirds of paternity cases that provide affirmative results. "Then you've got an even stronger bond between father and child because now there is no doubt."


The Alberta Report - August 10, 1998, Page 36

The strands of adultery
Cheap DNA testing could mean broken families

If your wife had a baby and you suspected you were not the father, would you want to know? That was the dilemma faced by two Ontario men, "Gary" and "David." Both suspected their wives had been unfaithful; both opted to have DNA testing on their children. "Gary" discovered that the child was indeed his, and it brought him closer to his wife. "David" discovered his wife got pregnant by her lover; his marriage is now in serious trouble. This true story, related by Ottawa sex therapist Sue McGarvie, illustrates a phenomenon that will become commonplace as inexpensive DNA testing becomes widely available. Several studies in the early 1990s that used blood samples to determine paternity found that at least 10% of babies born to stable couples were illegitimate. A researcher who surveyed one British town in the 1970s found that 30% of babies born to married women were conceived adulterously. But now a man can have his cuckold's horns fitted by experts -- a saliva swab from the child in question is sufficient. Family advocates worry that men proving what they have previously only suspected will result in more divorces and broken families. "We call these 'suspicious spouse' cases," says Jennifer Clay, sales and marketing director at Helix Biotech, a Richmond company that does private DNA testing. For $860 Helix will compare two samples of DNA -- from blood or cheek cells, for example-to see if their sources are related. The cost rises to $1,600 if the sample has to be extracted from more difficult sources, such as discarded chewing gum, or Kleenex, or Band-Aids. ...


ABC NEWS WIRE  - 20 August 1999

High Court Rejects Non-Dad's Claim

CROSSETT, ARKANSAS -- The Arkansas State Supreme Court says a Crossett man must pay his ex-wife child support for two sons born during their marriage, even though D-N-A tests say he isn't the biological father. The court says James Kelley failed to dispute paternity during his divorce proceedings, so he must pay. It's the second such ruling the court has made this year. Kelley says he'll appeal in the federal courts. He says he will also ask the Legislature to pass a law that would protect other men caught in similar circumstances.


Divorced Man Not Father, but Must Support Child

Judge rules that furthering the 'self interests of the parent' is not a good reason to abandon child support payments.

Bruce Balestier
New York Law Journal
September 3, 1999

A divorced man who paid child support for 13 years before learning that he was not the child's biological father still must continue to make support payments, a Queens Supreme Court justice has ruled. . . . Justice Phyllis Orlikoff Flug declared that the paramount concern in such a case must be the best interests of the child. . . . The marriage between Joseph and Marlaine Ocasio began in 1976 and effectively ended with their separation in 1979. While pregnant, Ms. Ocasio received an order of child support at a hearing in Family Court, during which Mr. Ocasio did not raise the issue of paternity. In June 1980, the child, Joseph Michael Ocasio, was born. . . .

The case was then referred to Justice Flug, who held a hearing on the matter this June. In her decision, Justice Flug reacted scornfully to Mr. Ocasio's assertion that the termination of child support would have no adverse mpact on the child's financial condition, calling the suggestion [that a 19-year-old young man doesn't require child support any longer] "preposterous, incredible and without substance."


The Dallas Morning News, 10/31/99

By Brooks Egerton

BIG SPRING, Texas - You are not a cystic fibrosis carrier, the doctor says. Sounds like good news, but it has ripped his patient's life apart. Both parents must have a defective CF gene for their offspring to develop the deadly disease -- so how could Morgan Wise's youngest child be sick?

"I'm sorry to say there's a good chance he's not your boy," he recalled the physician telling him. In disbelief, he had DNA work done on all his kids. The staggering conclusion: His three sons were not his three sons, at least not biologically speaking.


The Times (Britain) - 23 January 2000

One in seven fathers 'not the real parent'

Lois Rogers, Medical Correspondent

At least one in 10 children was not sired by the man who believes he is their father, according to scientists in paternity testing laboratories.

Some laboratories have reported the level of "unexpected" paternity to be as high as one in seven when they perform DNA genetic tests on blood samples from supposed parent and offspring.

David Hartshorne, spokesman for Cellmark, said that in about one case in seven, the presumed father turns out to be the wrong man.

"It is surprising how often the mother is wrong about the person she thinks is the father," he said. Marriage breakdown and more births outside marriage have increased disputes about paternity and the desire for testing, he added.

In addition to DNA evidence, other studies of mass blood samples suggest that increasing numbers of women are unsure if their husbands are the fathers of their children.


350 Men per month are being ordered to pay for children who are not theirs!
Front Page L.A. Times: http://www.copss.org/media/LATimesSeries1.htm

"Roughly 70% of parents billed for child support are not in court when paternity is established and their monthly obligations set. Certainly, many of these noncustodial parents simply choose not to appear. But many others say that the first time they learned they had missed a court date was when their wages were garnished. No one knows how many men are wrongfully pursued for child support, though the district attorney's own records show that on average more than 350 a month are incorrectly named as fathers. Some men who fail to appear in court--whether purposefully or not--find themselves caught in a painful trap: They are not the fathers of children they have been ordered to support. But because they were not present to contest paternity, they are held liable for the payments."


Estimates of misattributed 'fatherhood' run up to 25% in some American cities
Betzig L, 'Where are the bastard's daddies?', Behavioural and Brain Sciences 285, 16, 1993.


Blood Types

Parents' Blood Types Possible Children Impossible Children
A & A A, O B, AB
A & B A, B, AB, O none
A & AB A, B, AB O
A & O A, O B, AB
B & B B, O A, AB
B & AB A, B, AB O
B & O B, O A, AB
AB &AB A, B, AB O
AB & O A, B AB, O
O & O O A, B, AB